Fyodor Dostoevsky (November 11, 1821 - February 9, 1881) was perhaps the greatest writer ever produced by Russia. His works have had a profound impact on literature and, almost without exception, the authors of the twentieth century credit him as a major influence. His books are coated with religous and political overtones, espousing the power of the love of God and warning against the radical ideologies seething into Russia.
Fyodor was the second of seven children born to Mikhail and Maria Dostoevsky. Shortly after his mother died of tuberculosis in 1837, he and his brother Mikhail were sent to the Military Engineering Academy at St. Petersburg, and they lost their father, a retired military surgeon who served as a doctor at the Mariinsky Hospital for the Poor in Moscow, in 1839. While not known for certain, it is believed that Mikhail Dostoevsky was murdered by his own serfs, who reportedly became enraged during one of Mikhail's drunken fits of violence, restrained him, and poured vodka into his mouth until he drowned. Another story was that Mikhail died of natural causes, and a neighboring landowner invented this story of a peasant rebellion so he could buy the estate cheaply. Regardless of what may have actually happened, Sigmund Freud focused on this tale in his famous article, Dostoevsky and Parricide (1928).
Dostoevsky was arrested and imprisoned in 1849 for engaging in revolutionary activity against Tsar Nicholas I of Russia. On November 16 that year he was sentenced to death for anti-government activities linked to a liberal intellectual group, the Petrashevsky Circle. After a mock execution in which he was blindfolded and ordered to stand outside in freezing weather waiting to be shot by a firing squad, Dostoevsky's sentence was commuted to a number of years of exile performing hard labor at a katorga prison camp in Omsk, Siberia. The incidences of epilepsy, to which he was predisposed, increased during this period. He was released from prison in 1854, and was required to serve in the Siberian Regiment. Dostoevsky spent the following five years as a corporal (and latterly lieutenant) in the Regiment's Seventh Line Battalion stationed at the fortress of Semipalatinsk in Kazakhstan.
This was a turning point in the author's life. Dostoevsky abandoned his earlier liberal sentiments and became deeply conservative and extremely religious. He later formed a peculiar friendship with another archconservative, Konstantin Pobedonostsev. He began an affair with, and later married, Maria Dmitrievna Isaeva, the widow of an acquaintance in Siberia.
In 1860, he returned to St. Petersburg, where he ran a series of unsuccessful literary journals with his older brother Mikhail. Dostoevsky was devastated by his wife's death in 1864, followed shortly thereafter by his brother's death. He was financially crippled by business debts and the need to provide for his brother's widow and children. Dostoevsky sank into a deep clinical depression|depression, frequenting gambling parlors and accumulating massive losses at the tables.
Dostoevsky suffered from an acute gambling compulsion as well as from its consequences. By one account Crime and Punishment, possibly his best known novel, was completed in a mad hurry because Dostoevsky was in urgent need of an advance from his publisher. He had been left practically penniless after a gambling spree. Dostoevsky wrote The Gambler simultaneously in order to satisfy an agreement with his publisher Stellovsky who, if he did not receive a new work, would have claimed the copyrights to all of Dostoyevsky's writing.
Motivated by the dual wish to escape his creditors at home and to visit the casinos abroad, Dostoevsky traveled to Western Europe. There, he attempted to rekindle a love affair with Apollinaria (Polina) Suslova, a young university student with whom he had had an affair several years prior, but she refused his marriage proposal. Dostoevsky was heartbroken, but soon met Anna Snitkina, a twenty-year-old stenographer whom he married in 1867. This period resulted in the writing of his greatest books. From 1873 to 1881 he vindicated his earlier journalistic failures by publishing a monthly journal full of short stories, sketches, and articles on current events — the Writer's Diary. The journal was an enormous success. Dostoevsky is also to have known to influence and been influenced by famous Russian Philosopher Vladimir Solovyov, some state Solovyov was the prototype of the character Alyosha Karamozov .
In 1877 Dostoevsky gave the keynote eulogy at the funeral of his friend, the poet Nikolai Alekseevich Nekrasov, to much controversy. In 1880, shortly before he died, he gave his famous Pushkin speech at the unveiling of the Pushkin monument in Moscow.
In his later years, Fyodor Dostoevsky lived for a long time at the resort of Staraya Russa which was closer to St Petersburg and less expensive than German resorts. He died on January 28, 1881 of a lung haemorrhage associated with an attack of epilepsy and was interred in Tikhvin Cemetery at the Alexander Nevsky Monastery, St. Petersburg, Russia. Forty thousand mourning Russians attended his funeral.
 Dostoevsky,Fyodor; Introduction- The Idiot, Wordsworth Ed. Ltd, 1996.
Works and influence Edit
Dostoevsky's influence cannot be overemphasized—from Herman Hesse to Marcel Proust, William Faulkner, Albert Camus, Franz Kafka, Henry Miller, Yukio Mishima and Gabriel García Márquez —virtually no great twentieth century writer escaped his long shadow (rare dissenting voices include Vladimir Nabokov, Henry James, Joseph Conrad and, more ambiguously, D.H. Lawrence). American novelist Ernest Hemingway also cited Dostoevsky in his autobiographic books, as a major influence on his work. Essentially a writer of myth (and in this respect sometimes compared to Herman Melville), Dostoevsky has created an opus of immense vitality and almost hypnotic power characterized by the following traits: feverishly dramatized scenes (conclaves) where his characters are, frequently in scandalous and explosive atmosphere, passionately engaged in Socratic dialogues à la Russe; the quest for God, the problem of Evil and suffering of the innocents haunt the majority of his novels; characters fall into a few distinct categories: humble and self-effacing Christians (prince Myshkin, Sonya Marmeladova, Alyosha Karamazov), self-destructive nihilists (Svidrigailov, Smerdyakov, Stavrogin, the underground man), cynical debauchers (Fyodor Karamazov), rebellious intellectuals (Raskolnikov, Ivan Karamazov); also, his characters are driven by ideas rather than by ordinary biological or social imperatives.
Dostoevsky's novels are compressed in time (many cover only a few days) and this enables the author to get rid of one of the dominant traits of realist prose, the corrosion of human life in the process of the time flux — his characters primarily embody spiritual values, and these are, by definition, timeless. Other obsessive themes include suicide, wounded pride, collapsed family values, spiritual regeneration through suffering (the most important motif), rejection of the West and affirmation of Russian Orthodoxy and Tsarism. Literary scholars such as Mikhail Bakhtin have characterized his work as 'polyphonic': unlike other novelists, Dostoevsky does not appear to aim for a 'single vision', and beyond simply describing situations from various angles, Dostoevsky engendered fully dramatic novels of ideas where conflicting views and characters are left to develop unevenly into unbearable crescendo.
By common critical consensus one among the handful of universal world authors, along with Dante, Shakespeare, Goethe, Miguel de Cervantes, Victor Hugo and a few others, Dostoevsky has decisively influenced twentieth century literature, existentialism and expressionism in particular.
Major works Edit
- Бедные Люди (Poor Folk) (1846)
- Двойник: Петербургская Поэма (The Double: A Petersburg Poem) (1846)
- Неточка Незванова (Netochka Nezvanova) (1849)
- Село Степанчиково и его обитатели (The Village of Stepanchikovo or The Friend of the Family) (1859)
- The Insulted and Humiliated (or The Insulted and the Injured) (1861)
- Записки из Подполья (The House of the Dead) (1862)
- A Nasty Story (1862)
- Записки из Подполья (Notes from Underground or Letters from the Underworld) (1864)
- Преступление и Наказание (Crime and Punishment) (1866)
- Игрок (The Gambler) (1867)
- Идиот (The Idiot) (1868)
- Бесы (The Possessed or Demons or The Devils) (1872)
- Подросток (The Raw Youth or The Adolescent) (1875)
- Братья Карамазовы (The Brothers Karamazov) (1880)
Short stories Edit
Dostoyevsky's short stories are often overshadowed by his epic novels, but are equally powerful.
- "White Nights" (1848)
- "A Christmas Tree and a Wedding" (1848)
- "An Honest Thief" (1848)
- "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" (1877)
- "The Peasant Marey" (1876)
Cultural references Edit
- The rock band British Sea Power directly references Dostoevsky in the song "Apologies to Insect Life", which is loosely based on Notes from Underground.
- The band Protest the Hero has stated that Dostoevesky was the main influence for their concept album Kezia. They have also written and performed a song entitled "I am Dimitri Karamazov and the World Is My Father" on their EP A Calculated Use of Sound.
- Brian Griffin reads Crime and Punishment in an episode of Family Guy.
- Sam Weir reads Crime and Punishment in the episode "Tricks and Treats" on the TV show Freaks and Geeks.
- Yhe Machinist also seems to be influenced by Dostovsky's The Double, in that the main character of the story is both the antagonist and the protagonist. The DVD commentary for The Machinist names The Double as a source of inspiration. The main character in The Machinist is also depicted at one point reading Dostoevsky's The Idiot.
- In the British television series The Office, season 1 episode 3, David Brent attempts to boost his ego by displaying a knowledge of Dostoevsky's life and works.
- In Woody Allen's feature film Match Point, the lead character is depicted reading Dostoevsky and often discusses him.
- Indie band Kind of Like Spitting recorded the song "Dostoyevsky Gets Mugged Outside a Donut Shop in Jersey" for their album Old Moon in the Arms of the New.
- American Psycho by Bret Easton Ellis begins with a quote from Notes from Underground.
- In The X-Files episode "Talitha Cumi," much of the dialogue between the Cigarette Smoking Man and Jeremiah Smith is based on passages from The Grand Inquisitor in The Brothers Karamazov.
- The British post-punk band Magazine references Dostoyevsky in "Philadelphia" and "Song from Under the Floorboards" on their album The Correct Use of Soap.
- Nietzsche said of Jesus: "it is regrettable that no Dostoevsky lived near him"
- Nietzsche also stated that Dostoevsky was the only psychologist from whom he had anything to learn and that "finding Dostoevsky by accident was a pivotal point of change in his life". He is also reputed to have said that Notes from the Underground "cried truth from the blood". An investigation on the source of this statement may be found here
- Martin Scourse drew from Dostoevsky's body of work in specifically "Crime and Punishment" and "Notes from the Underground" to create the movie Taxi Driver. http://web.archive.org/20011006213838/www.geocities.com/jnyby83/ScorseseandDostoevsky.html
- FyodorDostoevsky.com - The Definitive Dostoevsky fan site
- Fyodor Dostoevsky's brief biography and works
- Selected Dostoevsky e-texts from Penn Librarys digital library project
- Free audiobook of Notes from Underground from LibriVox
- Full texts of some Dostoevsky's works in the original Russian
- Fyodor Dostoyevsky - Biography, ebooks, quotations, and other resources
- Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky, translated by Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonsky. Vintage Classics, 1992, New York.
- Crime and Punishment, Fyodor Dostoevsky, translated by Constance Garnett, introduction by Joseph Frank. Bantam Books, 1987, New York.
- Some photos of places and statues that are reminiscent of Dostoevsky and his work
- Dostoevsky Research Station